In the past 40 years, organizations have institutionalized diversity programs to commit to diversity discourse in society and employment equity legislations. Organizational and critical scholars have long argued the ineffectiveness of diversity and inclusion programs. The landscape of diversity and inclusion programs in Canada is unclear. Drawing on in-depth interviews, this study investigates the experience of ethnic-minority high-skilled immigrants with diversity programs in Canada. Diversity and inclusion programs are deliberate and dispensable for ethnic-minority immigrants. They have limited effect on immigrant integration but brings out the conflict between skills and identity, as well as creating boundary in the workplace. Diversity and inclusion programs become the tool for communication and business, which decouples diversity and inclusion practices from diversity policy and discourse. Finally, diversity and inclusion programs are bureaucratic ceremonies that hinders structural discrimination but celebrates legitimacy. Implications for reforming diversity programs are discussed.




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