This report is informed by a review of academic and grey literature and expert interviews. A substantial portion of literature reviewed employed an anthropological, ethnographic or sociological approach to documenting and studying communities in California in an effort to identify activities that are artistically and culturally meaningful—both in terms of heritage-based and folk traditions specific to communities that reflect the state’s diverse population. This report was originally developed by NORC at the University of Chicago with support from The James Irvine Foundation during the design phase of the California Survey of Arts & Cultural Participation. California is already home to a majority-minority population and is leading the nation’s shift in this demographic direction. This review of literature is therefore oriented to understanding the “cultural frames” of various socio-demographic communities and to unpacking the many dimensions—meanings, settings, and social context—related to this domain of cultural participation. An especially important component of the expanded analysis is related to the evolving online and digital activity that enables the production, consumption, promotion and support of artistic activity.




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